As the year draws to a close, along with the 2020 Census and election, states are preparing for the next cycle of redistricting. Below are the congressional and legislative redistricting deadlines for each state.
Congressional Redistricting Deadlines
These six states face a 2021 redistricting deadline set by either the state constitution or by a statute. Only a constitutional amendment can alter the 2021 state constitutional deadlines. The statutory deadline in Oregon can be remedied by a bill. States with a deadline falling in 2021 are California, Maine, Michigan, Ohio, Oregon*, Virginia.
January of 2022 Deadline
New Jersey, New York, and Washington all have set deadlines falling in January of 2022.
Following the Census
This category applies to states such as Indiana and Minnesota who base their congressional redistricting deadlines on the year the Census is conducted. The language included in these states tends to require congressional redistricting in “the year following the census.” States with this kind of requirement are Connecticut, Iowa, Indiana, Minnesota, Utah, and Vermont.
After the Census is Available
Slightly nuanced from the previous category, these states require the new congressional district maps to be drawn by a set date after the population data is delivered to the state. The amount of time to complete the necessary redistricting process varies according to individual constitutions. For example, Idaho’s constitution states that the final plan for redistricting must be submitted no later than ninety days after the census data becomes available to the state. States with redistricting deadlines dependent on the release of the census data are Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, and Montana.
No Defined Timeline
These 31 states have no statutory or constitutional deadline by which they have to redistrict congressional districts. States with no defined congressional redistricting timeline are AL, AK, AZ, AR, DE, FL, GA, IL, KS, KY, LA, MD, MA, MS, MO, NE, NV, NH, NM, NC, ND, OK, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, WV, WI, WY.
Legislative Redistricting Deadlines
Many states have different redistricting timelines for their congressional and legislative districts. Below are the deadlines states utilize for redistricting legislative districts.
There are 15 states with legislative redistricting 2021 deadlines. Virginia has legislative elections in November of 2021 and may have to hold their 2021 elections under the existing districts before redrawing them in time for their 2023 legislative elections. The states required to redistrict by the end of 2021 are Alaska, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, Hawaii, Idaho, Maine, Michigan, Montana, New Hampshire, Ohio, Oregon, South Dakota, Virginia.
Nine states have explicit deadlines to complete legislative redistricting in the year of each decade ending in two, in this case 2022. States with 2022 redistricting deadlines are Florida, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, New Jersey,* New York, and Washington.
*New Jersey recently passed a constitutional amendment delaying legislative redistricting should the necessary census data not be provided by February 15 of years ending in one. Their 2021 legislative elections will be held under the existing lines until they are redrawn in 2022 for the 2023 legislative elections. If the necessary redistricting data is provided by February 15, 2021 then the lines will be redrawn and in effect for the 2021 legislative elections.
Year/Session Following the Census
There are fourteen states that require legislative redistricting be completed in the year following the census or during the first session (or budget session) following the census. States that must redistrict during the first legislative session or within the year following the census are Alabama, Arkansas, Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, Massachusetts, Minnesota, North Carolina, North Dakota, Nevada, Oklahoma, Vermont, Wisconsin, and Wyoming.
After the Census is Available
A handful of states are required to redraw legislative lines after the release of the census data. The states required to redistrict after the release of the census data are Missouri, Pennsylvania, Texas, and Utah.
No Defined Deadline
Eight states do not have set legislative redistricting deadlines. They are Arizona, Georgia, Nebraska, New Mexico, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Tennessee, and West Virginia.