Self-identification among people of Alaska Native descent. There were six main Alaska Native groups in the 2020 Census:
- Alaska Athabaskan
Refers to people who reported their origin as "Hispanic," "Spanish," "Latino," or other variations of Hispanic general terms without identifying a specific country of origin in the Hispanic origin question.
The process by which a characteristic (for example, age, race or rent) is assigned to a person or housing unit in the absence of an acceptable entry on the census or survey questionnaire. The general procedure for inserting omitted entries or changing unacceptable entries is to assign an entry for a person that is consistent with other entries for that person or entries for other persons with similar characteristics. The procedure is similar for missing entries.
Self-identification among people of American Indian descent. Many American Indians report membership in a tribe(s). There are 42 broad categories of tribes, or tribal groupings for American Indians: Apache, Arapaho, Blackfeet, Canadian and French American Indian, Central American Indian, Cherokee, Cheyenne, Chickasaw, Chippewa, Choctaw, Colville, Comanche, Cree, Creek, Crow, Delaware, Hopi, Houma, Iroquois, Kiowa, Lumbee, Menominee, Mexican American Indian, Navajo, Osage, Ottawa, Paiute, Pima, Potawatomi, Pueblo, Puget Sound Salish, Seminole, Shoshone, Sioux, South American Indian, Spanish American Indian, Tohono O'odham, Ute.
American Indian or Alaska Native
A person having origins in any of the original peoples of North and South America (including Central America) and who maintains tribal affiliation or community attachment. This category includes people who indicate their race as “American Indian or Alaska Native” or report entries such as Navajo, Blackfeet, Inupiat, Yup’ik, or Central American Indian groups or South American Indian groups. Respondents who identified themselves as “American Indian or Alaska Native” were asked to report their enrolled or principal tribe. Therefore, tribal data in tabulations reflect the written entries reported on the questionnaires. Some of the entries (for example, Metlakatla Indian Community and Umatilla) represent reservations or a confederation of tribes on a reservation. The information on tribe is based on self-identification and, therefore, does not reflect any designation of a federally or state-recognized tribe.
American Indian, Alaska Native, Native Hawaiian Area (AIANNHI)
A Census Bureau term referring to the following types areas: federal and state American Indian reservations, American Indian off-reservation trust land areas (individual or tribal), Oklahoma tribal statistical areas (in 1990, tribal jurisdictional statistical areas), tribal designated statistical areas, state designated American Indian statistical areas, Alaska Native Regional Corporations, Alaska Native village statistical areas, and Hawaiian home lands. Can also be a Census Bureau term referring to both legal and statistical American Indian, Alaska Native, and Native Hawaiian areas.
The Census Bureau treats American Samoa as the statistical equivalent of a state for data presentation purposes.
Refers to people who reported any type of Arab ancestry, including those who reported a specific group such as "Lebanese," "Syrian," or "Palestinian," and those who identified with a more broad group such as "Arab," "Arabic," or "Middle Eastern."
A person having origins in any of the original peoples of the Far East, Southeast Asia, or the Indian subcontinent, including, for example, Cambodia, China, India, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, the Philippine Islands, Thailand, and Vietnam. This includes people who reported detailed Asian responses such as: Asian Indian, Bangladeshi, Bhutanese, Burmese, Cambodian, Chinese, Filipino, Hmong, Indonesian, Japanese, Korean, Laotian, Malaysian, Nepalese, Pakistani, Sri Lankan, Taiwanese, Thai, Vietnamese, Other Asian (specified), or Other Asian (not specified).
The population count or estimate used as the starting point in the estimates process. It is typically the most recent population census count. The April 1, 2020 estimates of base population may differ from the April 1, 2020 Census count due to legal boundary updates, other geographic program changes, and Count Question Resolution actions.
A person having origins in any of the Black racial groups of Africa. It includes people who indicate their race as “Black or African American,” or report entries such as African American, Kenyan, Nigerian, or Haitian.
ACS: The American Community Survey (ACS) is a nationwide survey sampling a portion of the population, conducted every month, that is designed to aid in the determination of annual federal funding allocations and to provide communities with a fresh look at how they are changing. The ACS replaced the decennial census long form in 2010 and thereafter by collecting long form type information throughout the decade rather than only once every 10 years. Questionnaires are mailed to a sample of addresses to obtain information about households regarding each person therein and the housing unit itself. The American Community Survey produces demographic, social, housing and economic estimates in the form of 1-year, 3-year and 5-year estimates based on population thresholds. The strength of the ACS is in estimating population and housing characteristics. It produces estimates for small areas, including census tracts and population subgroups. Although the ACS produces population, demographic and housing unit estimates, the Census Bureau's population estimates program produces and disseminates the official estimates of the population for the nation, states, counties, cities and towns, and estimates of housing units for states and counties. For 2010 and other decennial census years, the Decennial Census provides the official counts of population and housing units.
- One Year Estimates (ACS) – Estimates based on 1 year of American Community Survey (ACS) data. They are meant to reflect the characteristics of a geographic area over the entire 12-month period. They are published for geographic areas with a population of 65,000 or more.
- Three Year Estimates (ACS) – Estimates based on 3 years of American Community Survey (ACS) data. These estimates are meant to reflect the characteristics of a geographic area over the entire 3-year period. These estimates are published for geographic areas with a population of 20,000 or more.
- Five Year Estimates (ACS) – Estimates based on 5 years of American Community Survey (ACS) data. These estimates are meant to reflect the characteristics of a geographic area over the entire 5-year period. These estimates are published for all geographic areas.
- Population Estimates – Data for the American Community Survey and Census 2000 Supplementary Survey that is collected from a sample of housing units and used to produce estimates of the actual figures that would have been obtained by interviewing the entire population using the same methodology.
- Estimates Base (Population Estimates Program) – The population count or estimate used as the starting point in the estimates process. It can be the last Census count or the estimate for a previous date. Also referred to as the "base population".
- PL 94-171 – Federal law enacted in 1975 requiring the U. S. Census Bureau to provide the states with data for use in redistricting as well as mandating the program wherein the states define the geography for the purpose of collecting data.
The geographic units for which census information is tabulated and reported with several hierarchies, the most basic of which is census block to census block group to census tract to county to state.
People who indicate that they were born in the United States, Puerto Rico, a U.S. Island Territory, or abroad to at least one U.S. citizen parent are U.S. citizens. People who indicate that they are U.S. citizens through naturalization are also U.S. citizens. Naturalized U.S. citizens are foreign-born people who identify themselves as naturalized. Naturalization is the conferring, by any means, of citizenship upon a person after birth.
Components of Population Change
Demographic events (births, deaths, domestic migration, and international migration) used to estimate changes in the population during a specified time period.
This definition is used only for American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, and Guam (U.S. Island Areas). Ethnic origin refers to an individual’s self-identification of their origin or descent, “roots,” heritage, or place where the individual or his/her parents or ancestors were born. Respondents could report their ethnic group regardless of the number of generations removed from their place of origin. Responses to this question reflected the groups with which respondents identified and not necessarily the degree of attachment or association the individual had with the particular group(s). The responses to this question were used not only to describe the ethnic origin of the respondent, but also their race. Racial and ethnic classification used by the Census Bureau adheres to the October 30, 1997, Federal Register notice entitled, “Revisions to the Standards for the Classification of Federal Data on Race and Ethnicity” issued by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB). These standards govern the categorization of race and ethnicity in census data products. The OMB identified five minimum race categories (White, Black or African American, American Indian or Alaska Native, Asian, and Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander). The OMB identified two minimum ethnicity categories (Hispanic or Latino and Not Hispanic or Latino).
The U.S. Census Bureau adheres to the U.S. Office of Management and Budget’s (OMB) definition of ethnicity. There are two minimum categories for ethnicity: Hispanic or Latino and Not Hispanic or Latino. OMB considers race and Hispanic origin to be two separate and distinct concepts. Hispanics and Latinos may be of any race.
A Census Bureau employee who interviews people to obtain information for a census or survey.
In general discussions, the concept of “gender” is often confused with the concept of “sex,” and the terms are used interchangeably. These two concepts are not the same: Sex is based on the biological attributes of men and women (chromosomes, anatomy, hormones). Gender is a social construction whereby a society or culture assigns certain tendencies or behaviors the labels of masculine or feminine. These assignments may differ across cultures and among people within a culture, and even across time. Gender may or may not correspond directly to sex--depending on the society or culture or period. That means, for example, that people may associate themselves with femininity (as defined by their culture) while being biologically male. At the Census Bureau, the sex question wording very specifically intends to capture a person's biological sex and not gender. Ambiguity of these two concepts interferes with accurately and consistently measuring what the Census Bureau intends to measure--the sex composition of the population.
Hispanic or Latino refers to a person of Cuban, Mexican, Puerto Rican, South or Central American, or other Spanish culture or origin regardless of race. This includes people who reported detailed Hispanic or Latino groups such as: Mexican: Puerto Rican, Cuban, Dominican Republic; Central American (excludes Mexican): Costa Rican, Guatemalan, Honduran, Nicaraguan, Panamanian, Salvadoran, Other Central American; South American: Argentinian, Bolivian, Chilean, Colombian, Ecuadorian, Paraguayan, Peruvian, Uruguayan, Venezuelan, Other South American; Spaniard: All other Hispanic or Latino.
A household includes all the people who occupy a housing unit (such as a house or apartment) as their usual place of residence. A household includes the related family members and all the unrelated people, if any, such as lodgers, foster children, wards, or employees who share the housing unit. A person living alone in a housing unit, or a group of unrelated people sharing a housing unit such as partners or roommates, is also counted as a household. The count of households excludes group quarters. There are two major categories of households, "family" and "nonfamily." Household is a standard item in Census Bureau population tables.
The total population or alternative apportionment basis for the state or top-level jurisdiction divided by the number of seats in a legislative body.
A method of decennial census data collection used in some of the more remote, sparsely populated areas of the United States and the Island Areas, where many of the households do not have mail delivery to city-style addresses. Enumerators list the residential addresses within their assignment areas on blank address register pages, mark the location of the residential structures on Census Bureau maps and conduct an interview for each household.
The status of belonging to a particular nation by birth, origin or naturalization.
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander
A person having origins in any of the original peoples of Hawaii, Guam, Samoa, or other Pacific Islands. This includes people who reported detailed Pacific Islander responses such as: Fijian, Guamanian or Chamorro, Marshallese, Native Hawaiian, Other Micronesian, Other Pacific Islander, not specified, Other Polynesian, Samoan, or Tongan.
The difference between domestic in-migration to an area and domestic out-migration from the same area during a specified time period. Domestic in- and out-migration consist of moves where both the origin and the destination are within the United States (excluding Puerto Rico). The net domestic migration rate expresses net domestic migration during a specified time period as a proportion of an area's population at the midpoint of the time period. Rates are expressed per 1,000 population.
Any change of residence across the borders of the United States (50 states and District of Columbia). The estimates of net international migration are made up of four sub-components:
- Net international migration of the foreign born;
- Net migration between the United States and Puerto Rico;
- Net migration of natives to and from the United States; and
- Net movement of the Armed Forces population between the United States and overseas.
The international migration rate expresses net international migration during a specified time period as a proportion of an area's population at the midpoint of the time period. Rates are expressed per 1,000 population.
The difference between the number of migrants entering and those leaving a country in a year, per 1,000 midyear population. May also be expressed as a percent. A positive figure is known as a net immigration rate and a negative figure as a net emigration rate.
Includes people who reported White and no other race group and did not report being of Hispanic origin.
Numeric population change is the difference between the population of an area at the beginning and end of a time period.
This definition is used only for American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, and Guam (U.S. Island Areas). Includes all other responses not included in the “Hispanic or Latino,” “White,” “Black or African American,” “American Indian or Alaska Native,” “Asian,” and “Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander” ethnic origin or race categories. Respondents reporting entries such as “multiracial,” “mixed,” or “interracial” in response to the ethnic origin or race question are included in this category.
The Census Bureau’s Population Estimates Program (PEP) produces July 1 estimates for years after the last published decennial census (2020), as well as for past decades. Existing data series such as births, deaths, Federal tax returns, Medicare enrollment, and immigration, are used to update the decennial census base counts. PEP estimates are used in Federal funding allocations, in setting the levels of national surveys, and in monitoring recent demographic changes.
The calculated number of people living in an area as of a specified point in time, usually July 1st. The estimated population is calculated using a component of change model that incorporates information on natural increase (births, deaths) and net migration (net domestic migration, net international migration) that has occurred in an area since the latest decennial census.
Estimates of the population for future dates. They illustrate plausible courses of future population change based on assumptions about future births, deaths, international migration, and domestic migration. Projections are based on an estimated population consistent with the most recent decennial census as enumerated. While projections and estimates may appear similar, there are some distinct differences between the two measures. Estimates usually are for the past, while projections typically are for future dates. Estimates generally use existing data, while projections must assume what demographic trends will be in the future. For dates when both population estimates and projections are available, population estimates are the preferred data.
Population estimates produced for the years after a decennial census when only the beginning population is known. They are produced and revised each year. For dates when both postcensal and intercensal estimates are available, intercensal estimates are preferred. Population estimates obtained by adding the number of births, subtracting the number of deaths and by adding or subtracting the net impact of international and internal migration on the most recent census population adjusted for census coverage error.
The counterpart to the ACS that is conducted in Puerto Rico.
The U.S. Census Bureau collects race data through the census’s questions on race in accordance with guidelines provided by the U.S. Office of Management and Budget (OMB), and this data is based on self-identification. The racial categories included in the census questionnaire generally reflect a social definition of race recognized in this country and are not an attempt to define race biologically, anthropologically, or genetically. In addition, it is recognized that the categories of the race question include race and national origin or sociocultural groups. OMB requires that race data be collected for a minimum of five groups: White, Black or African American, American Indian or Alaska Native, Asian, and Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander. OMB permits the Census Bureau to also use a sixth category - Some Other Race. Respondents may report more than one race.
Rural areas in Alaska which are difficult to access. In these areas, all ACS sample cases are interviewed using the personal visit mode. Field representatives attempt to conduct interviews for all cases in specific areas of remote Alaska during a single visit. All sample cases in remote Alaska are interviewed in either January through April or September through December.
Technique or method that measures part of a population to estimate the entire population.
Includes all other responses not included in the “White,” “Black or African American,” “American Indian or Alaska Native,” “Asian,” and “Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander” race categories. Respondents reporting entries such as multiracial, mixed, interracial, or a Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish group (for example, Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, or Spanish) in response to the race question are included in this category.
A federal census conducted at the request and expense of a local governmental agency to obtain a population count between decennial censuses.
The totaling and reporting of the census data from individual responses for all levels of census geography, or the process of summarizing statistical data in a table presenting statistics resulting from this process.
A small, relatively permanent statistical subdivision of a federally recognized American Indian reservation and/or off-reservation trust land, delineated by American Indian tribal participants or the Census Bureau for the purpose of presenting data. Tribal census tracts are defined independently of the standard county-based census tracts and consist only of territory located on reservation/trust land. The boundaries of tribal census tracts may cross state and/or county lines, and normally follow visible features, but may follow governmental unit boundaries and other nonvisible features in some instances.
People may choose to provide two or more races either by checking two or more race response check boxes, by providing multiple responses, or by some combination of check boxes and other responses. The race response categories shown on the questionnaire are collapsed into the five minimum race groups identified by OMB and the Census Bureau’s “Some Other Race” category. For data product purposes, “Two or More Races” refers to combinations of two or more of the following race categories:
- Black or African American
- American Indian or Alaska Native
- Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander
- Some Other Race
A "civilian veteran" is a person 18 years old or over who has served (even for a short time), but is not now serving, on active duty in the U.S. Army, Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps, or the Coast Guard, or who served in the U.S. Merchant Marines during World War II. People who served in the National Guard or military Reserves are classified as veterans only if they were ever called or ordered to active duty, not counting the 4-6 months for initial training or yearly summer camps. All other civilians 16 years old and over are classified as nonveterans.
A person having origins in any of the original peoples of Europe, the Middle East, or North Africa. It includes people who indicate their race as “White” or report entries such as Irish, German, Italian, Lebanese, Arab, Moroccan, or Caucasian.
Definitions were compiled from the Census Bureau Glossary, NCSL, National Geographic, ESRI, and the Education Glossary. All terms are linked to their respective source.