As of the 2020 Census, Vermont has only one at-large congressional district.
Primary Authority: Legislative plans are enacted by the Vermont General Assembly, subject to the Governor’s veto, with assistance from an advisory commission, the Legislative Apportionment Board. The General Assembly can override a veto with a 2/3 vote in each chamber. Democrats currently have veto-proof majorities in both chambers. [Vt. Const. § 73]
If a bill is presented to the governor during session, the governor has 5 days to sign or veto it; otherwise, it becomes law without signature. If the bill is delivered to the governor during the last 5 days of the session, the governor must sign or veto it within 3 days of transmittal; otherwise, it is pocket vetoed. Sundays are excluded from these calculations.
Advisory Commission: The Legislative Apportionment Board draws and submits legislative plan proposals to the General Assembly, which is free to enact or replace them.
Backup Authority: If the General Assembly fails to enact legislative plans by its deadline, the Supreme Court can be petitioned to order the adoption of redistricting plans. [Vt. Const. § 73]
Mapping Timeline: The Legislative Apportionment Board must adopt a tentative House plan on or before July 1 of the year following the taking of the decennial census and local boards of civil authority must submit their recommendations, if any, to the Board by August 1. After receiving recommendations, the Board must adopt and submit its final House proposal to the Clerk of the Vermont House on or before August 15 of that year. The Board must adopt and submit its final Senate proposal to the clerk of the Vermont Senate on or before July 1 of the year following the taking of the decennial census. The General Assembly must enact final legislative plans by the end of its biennial session following the taking of the decennial census. [Vt. Const. § 73; Vt. Stat. Ann. tit. 17, §§ 1903, 1905, 1906, 1907]
Redistricting Criteria: As nearly equal in population as is practicable; Preserve existing political subdivision lines; Recognize and maintain patterns of geography, social interaction, trade, political ties, and common interests; Compact; Contiguous. Multi-member districts permitted. [Vt. Const. § 73; Vt. Stat. Ann. tit. 17, § 1903]
Map Challenges: Within 30 days of an enacted redistricting plan’s effective date, any 5 or more Vermont voters can petition the Vermont Supreme Court to challenge it as violating the state’s constitutional or statutory requirements. The Vermont Supreme Court has the discretion to appoint one or more Justices, Superior judges, or masters to take testimony and make findings of fact in such challenges. If the challenge is successful, the Court returns the plan to the General Assembly for correction in accordance with its decision and opinion and the Court retains jurisdiction until a lawful plan has been enacted. [Vt. Stat. Ann. tit. 17, § 1909]
Types of Measures: Only the Vermont Legislature can refer amendments to the ballot. There is no initiative or referendum process. [Vt. Const. § 72]